Monday, October 31, 2011

gandhi in his sixties dealing with dead locked problems of india

Gandhi in his sixties dealing with deadlocked problems of India.

Congress working committee to met  March 5 to endorse the Gandhi Irwin agreement , directing all congress committees to discontinue civil obedience. He Gandhi elaborated  upon each of provisions urging congress men  “ honorably and fully” to implement every cause. A day later Irwin wrote to thank Gandhi . Irwin wrote “ it has been great privilege to me to be given this opportunity of meeting and knowing you- that history may say you  and I were permitted to be instruments in doing some thing good for India and humanity.

On March 23, Gandhi tested the power and limits of his new friendship, in a letter to Irwin  Gandhi passionately appealed for commutation  of death sentences passed on Bhagat Singh and other two terrorists. Gandhi wrote warning that executions if carried out would  endanger peace. A general strike protesting the death of those martyrs was called by Nehru , Sub ash Bose whose hatred for British rule blazed on the eve of meeting congress held that  year in Karachi. Many young delegates at Karachi congress were apprehensive over Gandhi settlement  with Irwin  and told him so. “You decision may gone wrong “ Gandhi admitted.

On May 13, Gandhi went up to Sim-la to meet with new viceroy Lord Willing don, former governor of Bombay a more conservatively rigid imperialist than Irwin, whose Vice royal term ended in April. By late June of 1931 Gandhi prepared his entourage for round table trip, since his first visit to London since he had gone there from South Africa. Charlie Andrews managed the  mundane housing details of his from London  accepting Muriel Lester’s  offer to accommodate Gandhi in small entourage in her East End  welfare settlement, kingly hall. Gandhi confirmed for them “ I will be living same sort of people as those for whom I spent my life. He decided to bring along Mahadev Desai,  Pyarelal and his son Devdas to serve as his London secretariat. Neither of Vallabhai Patel nor Jawaharlal Nehru was invited though both had eager to join him.

It was raining when Gandhi reached London on September 12, 1931. The second round table conference had already begun and Gandhi addressed “ I am but poor humble agent acting on behalf of Indian national congress “ he told addressing the assembly of more than a hundred elegantly attired delegates, twenty three representing bejeweled princes of Indian states, sixty nine from British India , twenty representatives of Britain. Gandhi began with history  of congress which he represented he told them  all Indian interests and all classes. He stressed however its commitment to the dumb semi -starved  millions living in India 700,000 villages. Time was when I prided my self , British subject I would far rather be called a rebel than a subject.”

Next day Gandhi met with Ag Khan at his suite in Ritz but did not result in any breakthrough agreement leading to Hindu midlands, Gandhi  journeyed to Lancashire where he spoke un employed mill workers many whom blamed him and India’s boycott for hard times that had thrown them out of work. He pained the unemployment he saw there but he told them if they went to Indian villages they wound find starvation and living corpus's.   Today India is a curse he said explaining that was why he had taught Indians to spin “ work with which they are familiar, which they could do in their cottages. The employment British workers responded warmly to Gandhi’s unadorned simplicity and passion of his argument.

British repression had begun with vengeance before Gandhi reached Bombay  Jawaharlal Nehru was arrested on December 26 , 1931 and sentenced to two years of rigorous imprisonment.  When Gandhi disembarked in Bombay December 28, he learned from reporters of arrest of Nehru and from mainly congress leaders.

Gandhi never despaired behind bars. Adversely cheered his passionate nature and intensified his resolve. The 1932-33 prison interlude brought purifying rays of his inner light to focus on Hinduisms greatest injustice, the crime of untouchablity .  On March 1932 Gandhi wrote to new secretary of state, Sir Samuel Ho-are, to remind him of warning he had issued in the closing date of round table conference that “ I should resist  with my life the grant of separate electorate status, which would grant a bloc of separate seats on all new council to candidate born only in untouchable communities.

When Nehru in his own distant prison later learned Gandhi decision he felt  “” annoyed with him for choosing a side issue for his final sacrifice Jawaharlal Nehru was angry with Bapu  for taking religious ,sentimental approach to a political question “ and his frequent references to god- god had made him to do this- god even indicated the date of fast. What a terrible examples to set “ Nehru noted.

AS soon as Charlie Andrew learned of Gandhi resolve to fast unto death he wrote to try to  dissuade his friend. Gandhi considered his fast a unique opportunity “for self purification urging all his ashram family and other close to him to shed “shear of joy” rather than sorrow on his behalf. It is privilege. It is both privilege and duty he explained. In non-violence it is crowing act. If Hindu mass mind it is yet prepared to banish  untouchability root and branch, it must sacrifice me without the slightest hesitation. He told to press.

Congress Brahman from north and south India including eminent leaders as Sapru, Jayakar, Malaviya, Rajendra Prasad and Raja Gopalachary met Devdas and others the next day to hammer out the scheme that satisfied Ambedkar guaranteeing almost double the number of legislative assembly to his community than MacDonald offered the depressed classes. Meanwhile cable poured in from around the world wishing Indian great soul and “ Magician “  success and long life.

The Hindu leaders conference meet Bombay again on 25th September  and unanimously resolved “ hence forth  “ that no Hindu should be regarded hitherto should all have same rights as other Hindu to use public wells, public roads and other public institutions. The agreement was wired London , and MacDonald  accepted on behalf of British government. On 26th September Gandhi broke his fast drinking a glass of orange juice handed to him by Kasturba. Surrounded by 200 people Gandhi lay on his cot as Bengal  Noble Laureate Gurudev Tagore song poem from Gitanjali . Gandhi appealed to all Hindus letter and spirit follow every clause of settlement. 

That February Gandhi announced the first edition of his new weekly “ HARIJAN “ for which he asked Ambedkar to write some thing. “ the out cast is bye product of caste system” Dr. Ambedkar wrote . There will be out casts as long as there are castes. Nothing can emancipate the out casts except  destruction of caste system it self, in “ ugly growth “  of malign ate  un touch ability on its other wise health “body “

Gandhi on the day of fast Gandhi was released from prison, but British authorities fearing that his death in jail would ignite revolt. He was driven to his friend lady Premilla Thackersey’ s  bungalow near Yeravda  in Poona’ s cantonment. “I  cannot regard this release with any degree of pleasure “ Gandhi told reporters. He promised  the government not to abuse his release and appealed for un conditional discharge of all civil resisters indicating his hope for general amnesty and peace for cooperation. After five days fasting Gandhi took advice of Dr. Deshmukh  and began drinking bottled Vichy water to reduce acidity in stomach. Sarojani Naidu  and Dr. An-sari were there to celebrate with group that included many Harijans young and old.

At the end of July 1933, Gandhi wired home secretary to notify him of his intention to lead satyagraha march from Ahmadabad to Raj to urge all villagers there to boycott liquor and foreign cloth. Gandhi was immediately arrested at midnight August 1, 1933 first taken to Sabarmati jail and then transferred the next day to Poona Yeravda. When magistrate asked his occupation Gandhi replied “ I am by profession weaver and a farmer” . Asked about his residence  “ Yeravda jail now but Gandhi made brief statement “ I am lover of peace, and regard my self good citizen voluntarily tendering obedience to the laws of state which I may belong. But there are occasions in life time of citizen when it comes his painful duty to disobey laws - I have had recently spread of freedom and was in midst of people-living perpetual fear of loss of liberty and their possessions”  Gandhi said. However magistrate Israel sentenced him a year prison as a A grade prisoner “ considering your age and present state of your health. Gandhi was almost sixty four and weighed less than one hundred pounds. 

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